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Assasif Tombs Egypt – Pabasa – Harwa – AnkhHor – Petamenophis – Kheruef – Puimre

Posted in Amen, Amenardes, Amenardis, Amenardus, Amenirdas, Amenirdies, Amenirdis, Amenirdis the Elder, Amenirdis the Great, Amirtaios, Amirteo, Amirto, Amnirdis, Amnrdis, Amon, Amonardis, Amonardus, Amonirdas, Amonirdies, Amonirdis, Amoun, Amounirdies, Amun, Amun-Ra, Amunardis, Amunirdies, Amunirdis, Amyrtaeus, Amyrtaios, Amyrtée, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Egyptian, Ankh, Ankh Hor, AnkhHor, Assasif Tombs, Assassif, Egypt, el-Assasif, Harwa, Kheruef, Pabasa, Pabes, Petamenophis, Puimre, Puyemra, Puyemre, Theban Necropolis, Tomb, TT189, TT190, TT191, TT192, TT194, TT195, TT196, TT279, TT33, TT37, TT39, TT409, TT414, Uncategorized, www.Amenardis.net, www.Amenirdis.net, www.Amunirdis.net, XXV, XXV Dynasty, XXVI, XXVI Dynasty with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on February 7, 2009 by www.Amunirdis.net

Assasif Tombs Egypt – Pabasa – Harwa – AnkhHor – Petamenophis – Kheruef – Puimre

Just a few of the El-Assasif Tombs in Thebes, Egypt.

“Whilst buying tickets to Hatshepsut’s temple at Deir el Bahri you may have noticed the sign giving ticket prices for the Assasif Tombs. Next time don’t ignore them they are well worth a visit. The Assasif is a very rich area for archaeologists and there are teams working at Petamenophis, Harwa and Puimra. The tombs that are open are Kheruef which is fully described here: http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/kherueft.htm and Ankh Hor, which are on the same ticket and finally Pabasa, which is a separate ticket.”
http://touregypt.net/teblog/egyptologynews/?p=2311
http://touregypt.net/teblog/egyptologynews/wp-trackback.php?p=2311

[Retrieved on 07 Feb’  ’09]

Details on El-Assasif Tombs mentioned above:

Tomb of Kheruef [also called Senaa] (TT192) 18th Dynasty.
Steward to the Great Royal Wife Tiye, during the reign of Amenhotep III. The reliefs in the tomb contains depictions of Tiye, Amenhotep III (shown as a weak and elderly figure in some decoration)and Akhenaten (named as Amenhotep). Hence, its decoration program started late in the final years of Amenhotep III and the earliest phase of the Akhenaten’s reign.
The tomb of Kheruef is large enough to have several later tombs associated with it, or placed within its substructure. The tombs, TT189, TT190, TT191, TT192, TT194, TT195, TT196 and TT409 are all much smaller and largely undecorated.

 

Petamenophis [Padiamenope, Patuamenap or Pedamenopet] (TT33) 25th to 26th Dynasties.
Chief Lector Priest. This beautiful limestone fragment of relief comes from Tomb 33 at  El-Assassif, belonging to Petamenophis. The portrait of this priest of modest rank, who owned one of the larger tombs of the Theban necropolis, has all the characteristics of the art of the transitional period of the 25th and 26th Dynasties. An archaic profile, individualised by large eyes with very marked eyebrows and by a thick-lipped mouth, is in particularly representative of it.
Video: http://www.clipser.com/watch_video/551446

Petamenophis, Padiamenope, Patuamenap or Pedamenopet

Petamenophis, Padiamenope, Patuamenap or Pedamenopet

 

Harwa (TT37) 25th Dynasty.
Harwa’s tomb is situated in the middle of the Assasif area, built on the processional way of Mentuhotep, with an entrance at the south. Archaeological excavations of the tomb began in 1995 and continue to-date. Harwa was an enigmatic person in ancient Egyptian history. He lived at the beginning of the 7th century BC, when the Nile Valley was in the hands of the Nubian Pharaohs of the 25th Dynasty. He held the position of Great Steward of the Divine Votaress, a position that allowed him to manage the huge resources of the state of Amun-Re of Karnak. This position was held for three centuries by the members of the clergy and embraced the whole southern Egypt. The importance of Harwa is mainly demonstrated by the eight statues portraying him in various attitudes which are now kept in the major Egyptian collections all over the world (Cairo, Aswan, Paris, London and Leipzig).
http://www.Harwa.it/eng/

Harwa (TT37) 25th Dynasty

Harwa (TT37) 25th Dynasty

 

Puimra [Puimre, Puyemra and also Puyemre] (TT39) 18th Dynasty.
The Ancient Egyptian noble and architect, Puimre was Second prophet of Amun during the reigns of Thutmose III and Hatshepsut. His tomb is located in El-Khokha, part of the Theban Necropolis, on the West Bank of the Nile.
http://www.uvmnet.edu/investigacion/episteme/numero4-05/colaboracion/a_preliminary.asp

 

Ankh Hor [Ankh-Hor, AnkhHor] (TT414) 26th Dynasty.
Ankh-Hor was ‘Steward of the Divine Votress Nitocris’, ‘Great Mayor of Memphis’, ‘Overseer of Upper Egypt in Thebes’ and ‘Overseer of the Priests of Amun’ during the reigns of Psamtek II and Apries (Wahibre) of Dynasty XXVI. His tomb is one of a series of large tombs in the Asasif area built at the end of the Third Intermediate Period for high officials in the estates of the Gods Wives of Amun. The great importance of the Gods Wives during this time is clearly reflected in the size of the tombs of their chief administrators, that of Ankh-hor being no exception. As Chief Steward of Nitocris, he would have been one of the most important and wealthiest men in Egypt.Ankh-Hor’s tomb followed the decoration in the tomb of Pabasa (TT279) and has some rare scenes of beekeeping, although the complete hives are not shown as they are in Pabasa’s tomb, but only the honeycombs.

(TT414) 26th Dynasty”]Ankh Hor [Ankh-Hor, AnkhHor] (TT414) 26th DynastyPabasa [Pabes] (TT279) Ancient Egyptian noble Pabasa was Chief Steward to the Nitocris I, Divine Adoratrice of Amun, during the Saite Period – Twenty-sixth dynasty
Pabasa has a large tomb at Asasif, just outside the entrance to Hatshepsut’s temple at Deir el-Bahri. Like Ankh-hor, who held this important title after him, he was the ‘Chief Steward of the God’s Wife Nitocris’ (Neitiqert) during the reign of Saite king Psamtek I.
Pabasa’s tomb still has a large mudbrick superstructure. A steep flight of stairs leads down to the entrance of the subterranean levels and on the lintel above the doorway is a fine relief of a barque, adored by the souls of Pe and Nekhen, by the God’s Wife, Nitocris and by the deceased.
A small vestibule leads to a larger pillared sun court. The vestibule shows scenes of Pabasa’s funeral procession, including mourners and the ‘Abydos Pilgrimage’. There is a long text of Pabasa and depictions of his son, Thahorpakhepesh, who acted as sem-priest at his father’s funeral.
On the inner lintel of the entrance to the court, a relief shows Osiris and Re-Horakhty, in the centre of a double-scene, with Pabasa and Nitocris and cartouches of the king (Psamtek I) and his daughter Nitocris on either side.
Beyond the sun court is a hall containing eight pillars, part of which was decorated but is now very damaged. The pillars were also decorated with deities and texts on the sides facing the central isle. At the rear of the hall a decorated niche contains Pabasa’s burial shaft. His granite sarcophagus is now in Glasgow Museum.
Several other chambers containing burial shafts are accessed from the rear of the hall.

Pabasa - Pabes - Wall Relief

Pabasa - Pabes - Wall Relief

(TT279) Sarcophagus”]Pabasa [Pabes] (TT279) Sarcophagus

Research@Amunirdis.net

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Harwa TT37 Grand Steward High Priest Doorkeeper in the Temple of Amun

Posted in Akhamenerau, Amenardes, Amenardis, Amenardus, Amenirdas, Amenirdies, Amenirdis, Amenirdis the Elder, Amenirdis the Great, Amirtaios, Amirteo, Amirto, Amnirdis, Amnrdis, Amon, Amonardis, Amonardus, Amonirdas, Amonirdies, Amonirdis, Amoun, Amounirdies, Amun, Amun-Ra, Amunardis, Amunirdies, Amunirdis, Amyrtaeus, Amyrtaios, Amyrtée, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Egyptian, Assasif, Black Pharaohs, Blogs, Deir el-Bahri, Divine Adoratice of Amun, Divine Adoratrice, Doorkeeper, Doorkeeper in the Temple of Amun, Dynasty, Egypt, Egyptian, Egyptian History, Egyptian Queen, Egyptological Research, Egyptologist, Egyptologists, Egyptology, el-Assasif, Epigraphy, Gods Hand, Gods Wife, Gods Wife of Amun, Grand Steward, Great of the Greats, Great Royal Wife, Habu, Harwa, Harwa’s Tomb, Hat neferu Mut, Hat Nefru Mut, Hat-nfrw-mwt, Hatnefrumut, Hieroglyphic, Hieroglyphics, Hieroglyphs, High Priest, High Priest of Amun, Karnak, Karnak Temple, Kashta, King Kashta, Kush, Kushite, Kushite Princess of Nubia, Kushite Queen, Luxor, Luxor Egypt, Mariam Ayad, Medinet, Medinet Habu, Montuemhat, Mummies, Mummification, Mummified Remains, Mummy of Amenardis, Mummy of Amenirdis, Mummy of Amunirdis, Museum, Museums, Napata, Noble, Nobles, Nubia, Nubian, Nubian Kingdom, Nubian Queen, Padiamenipet, Padiamenope, Padiamenopea, Peshuper, Petamenofi, Petamenophis, Pharaoh, Pharaohs, Piankhi, Pie, Piye, Precinct of Amun, Priest, Princess of Nubia, Pye, Queen Amenirdis, Queen Amunirdis, Queen of Egypt, Queen Pebatma, Royal Name, Royal Queen, Shabaka, Shabaka Neferkare, Shabaka Stone, Shabaqo, Shabitko, Shebitku, Shepenupet, Shepenwepet, Steward of the Divine Votaress, Sudan, Taharqa, Taharqo, Temple of Amun, Temples, Theban, Theban Priest, Theban Tomb, Thebes, Third Intermediate Period, Throne Name, Tomb, Tombs, TT, TT33, TT34, TT37, TT404, Twenty Fifth Dynasty, Two Lands, Upper Egypt, Waset, West Bank, www.Amenardis.net, www.Amenirdis.net, www.Amunirdis.net, XXV, XXV Dynasty with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on February 5, 2009 by www.Amunirdis.net

Harwa: “Great of the Greats”.

Harwa was an important man in ancient Egypt. He was an important figure in the life of Amenirdis I of ancient Egypt’s XXV Dynasty. He acted as the ‘Chief Steward’, or ‘Grand Steward’ for Amenirdis I, as God’s Wife of Amun and also whilst Queen Amenirdis served as Divine Adoratrice.
Additionally, he held the title (as High Priest) of “Doorkeeper in the Temple of Amun”.

Born in to a family of Theban Priests, Harwa held high office in Thebes (modern-day Luxor) with great responsibility to Amun and God’s Wife of Amun, the Divine Votaress, Amenirdis I. He was son of the “Lady of the House”, Nestaureret, and of a Priest attached to the temple of Amun in Karnak, Padimut son of Ankhefenamon.

His tomb is located in el-Assasif, part of the Theban Necropolis, near to Deir el-Bahri and is known as TT37 (Theban Tomb 37) which has been under archaeological examination for some years (14+) and currently not accessible to the public.

Harwa HieroglyphsThe tomb of Harwa (TT37) displays important features of a man holding such religious, spiritual and political power. Scenes and texts – at least those engraved in the principal axis of the monument – can be read as part of a description of the Egyptian man’s journey from his daily life to the Netherworld, passing through the ultimate experience of death and beyond. Each part of the monument concurs to document a different step of the path leading to eternal life.

The tomb (TT37) is large and in the “Osiris Hall” there is a wall relief describing the moment of the death where Harwa is shown ‘between worlds’, and separated from his physical body, with Anubis holding one hand. Harwa then exists in two (or more?) dimensions simultaneously – in the Land of Osiris and still in the land of the living, just.


Harwa’s tomb shows the moment of death in its supreme glory and Harwa continues to be shown ‘in the middle’, almost in a ‘freeze-frame’ reliefwith both his Ka and Ba ‘conscious’ (possibly his Akh + Ren + Shwt), ‘present’ and aware of their ‘state’ i.e. Harwa’s Ba – or possibly his Shwt or Ren – is shown as young and healthy whilst his Ka and physical form is as it was before the ‘freeze-frame’: corpulent, bald/ing and approximately 60 years old.

Alternatively, could the ‘freeze-frame’ relief depict the split-second when the Ka, Ba, Akh, Ren and Shwt ‘meet’ prior to the ‘magical’ departure to the different realms?
We will never know exactly why this complex scene is shown but it was most certainly important to Harwa and the explanation could possibly be beyond the understanding of our modern-day thought processes.
For the ancient Egyptians everything exists also in its complementary form. Nothing existed isolated, only for itself. The function/s was always intertwined with their universe, with Netjer and with Man.

 

This relief is highly unusual in ancient Egyptian scenes and whilst the above is purely personal conjecture, there is little doubt that Harwa was ‘more than a mortal’ given his almost ‘pharaoh-like’ status and titles.
Harwa was not only a dignitary holding vast powers but the ruler of Upper Egypt, ruling on behalf of the pharaohs of the twenty-fifth Dynasty, along with God’s Wives of Amun et al. This conclusion is supported by a limestone ushabti (shabty), discovered in TT37 during 1997, showing Harwa holding in his hands the crook and the flail i.e. the regalia – characteristic emblems of pharaonic royalty. A further ushabti is kept in the Egyptian collection of the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston.

 

Could it be that Harwa had numerous ‘Kas’, similar to the pharaohs of ancient Egypt?
Could the ‘freeze-frame’ be indicative of Harwa’s status as a ruling, ‘semi-royal’ noble?
Any further ideas, suggestions or comments would be most welcome – please e-mail me: Research@Amunirdis.net

 

A ushabti (shabty) of Harwa from TT37 – [image link].
More information and images from Harwa’s tomb – [link]

 

As an aside: I find it interesting that the tomb of Akhamenerau – TT404 (Theban Tomb 404) – is adjacent to TT37, the huge tomb of Harwa. Akhamenerau was “Chief Steward of the Divine Adoratrix Amenirdis I (Amunirdis I) and Shepenupet II (Shepenwepet II)” and, obviously, held office under these two powerful God’s Wives of Amun. It seems strange to me – though I’m no scholar – that Akhamenerau ruled at this time (though I can find no dates for Akhamenerau) and that placement of TT404 was so very close to TT37. Was this significant in itself, as – possibly – with the adjacent placement of the tombs of Montuemhat (TT34) and Petamenophis (TT33)? I would suggest so.
Did Amenirdis I and Shepenupet II’s rule of Upper Egypt overlap…?
Coregency for a few years before Amenirdis died?
Did Harwa hold Office under both God’s Wives of Amun…?
Amenirdis I ‘adopted‘ Shepenupet II and the latter obviously held Amenirdis I in high regard (see Medinet Habu, Chapel of the Adoratrice Amunirdis I) or did Akhamenerau live long enough to serve – and rule – under both God’s Wives of Amun?

 

Montuemhat and Petamenophis’ Theban Tombs
Montuemhat (TT34) served the Nubian Kings Taharqa and Tanutamun (Tanutamani, Tanwetamani or Tanutamon) as Fourth Prophet of Amun, Mayor of Thebes and Governor of Upper Egypt in the XXV dynasty.
[Bust of Montuemhat]
[Statue Group of Montuemhat and His Son, Nesptah]

Petamenophis (TT33) (Padiamenope, Padiamenipet, Petamenofi or Padiamenopea) served as Chief Lector Priest during the XXV to XXVI dynasties.

[Limestone fragment of tomb relief]

[Serpentine ushabti]

 

 

In Harwa’s Tomb (TT37), a text well-engraved on the southern wall of the passage leading to the First Pillared Hall enumerates his good deeds having recourse to the most typical phraseology of the Egyptian “ideal biography”. It is Harwa himself who is speaking. He tells the visitor to the tomb:

“I gave bread to the hungry man, clothes to the naked man”.

This phrase is pivotal in the connection between Harwa and Queen Amenirdis I as, on the reverse (and base) of the famous alabaster statue of Amenirdis I, there is a well-carved series of hieroglyphs which say:
“I gave food to the hungry, drink to the thirsty, clothes to the naked man.” (the full translation can be found Here…)

 

I have not seen a connection made anywhere regarding these two series of hieroglyphs – online or offline. I believe that this connection hasn’t yet been made by the scholars but the importance of the similar phrases is amazing to me.

Harwa held the position of “Grand Steward” for about forty years from the time of Piankhy, serving under Nubian pharaohs Shabaqo or Shabaka (713-698 BCE) and Shebitqo (698-690 BCE), until the reign of Taharqo or Taharqa (690 – 664 BCE).
Coincidentally, Amenirdis I is said to have served as God’s Wife of Amun, Divine Adoratrice (or Divine Votaress) and “God’s Hand” for approximately forty to forty-six years.
[Taharqo (or Taharqa) was the uncle of Amunirdis.]
 

It is my personal belief that Amenirdis I and Harwa had a close ‘royal’ relationship and ruled ‘together’ (in various roles) from ancient Thebes at approximately the same times in ancient Egypt.

During the 1997 archaeological campaign in Harwa’s tomb (TT37), a limestone ushabty (or shabti) was unearthed showing features which shed new light on some aspects of the role played by Harwa inside the Theban administration. It is a typically mummiform funerary statuette of the XXV Dynasty but it holds in his hands the crook and the flail, that is to say, the regalia, the characteristic emblems of the pharaonic royalty.

As far as it is known, it is the only example of non-royal ushabty displaying such characteristics.
Furthermore, in the Chapter VI of the Book of the Dead engraved on the body, Harwa is mentioned as “Great of the Greats”.
These evidences should point out that Harwa had more power than the one deriving from his role and that he can be considered as the co-governor of the Theban region on the behalf of the Nubian King alongside the Divine Adoratrice, Amunirdis I.
Also the vastness of his tomb and the high number of his statues can support the hypothesis that Harwa was the most politically influential person of the State; stretching to the First Cataract (a graffito signed by him has been found at Nag’esh Sheikh, near Aswan). 

If this assumption is confirmed by further excavations, then the positions of Montuemhat and Petamenophis will have to be reconsidered. They chose in fact to place their tombs east and west of the tomb of Harwa as if they attributed a high reverence to him and considered him a sort of ancestor. Does this also apply to Akhamenerau in TT404 and Peshuper (tomb location unknown at this time)? In this frame one has to ask: is it possible to speak of a “dynasty” of functionaries governing the Theban region with the consent of the Nubian kings? If this proves to be true, then, as they did not belong to the one family nor did they share the same titles and position, what was the mechanism of succession of these functionaries? No-one yet knows the answer to that question or the countless others raised by the life, works and tomb of Harwa, Grand Steward in the Precinct of Amun.

Many questions are raised merely because of the surviving evidence belonging to Amenirdis I and Harwa et al., but there are some issues which are quite clear:

Upper Egypt was ruled well under the governance of these two mighty figures (and others) and for forty to firty-six years, approximately, Upper Egypt was relatively peaceful (as opposed to the XXIII to XXIV Dynasties political and religious unrest and turmoil) whilst Pharaoh Shabaka (Amunirdis I’s brother) ruled from Memphis. Even after the death of her brother, Amunirdis I remained in control and acted, along with others, answering the State’s needs on many levels. Order was temporarily restored and both Amunirdis I and Harwa played a major role in ancient Egypt at that time.

Nubian Princess and Ancient Egyptian Queen – Amenirdis I

Posted in Amenardes, Amenardus, Amenirdas, Amenirdis, Amirtaios, Amirteo, Amirto, Amnirdis, Amnrdis, Amonardis, Amonardus, Amonirdies, Amonirdis, Amounirdies, Amunardis, Amunirdies, Amunirdis, Amyrtaeus, Amyrtaios, Hatnefrumut with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on February 3, 2009 by www.Amunirdis.net

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Royal Names of Hatnefrumut – Throne Name – Nomen and Modern-Day Translations – Amonirdis

Posted in AI, Akaluka, Amenardus, Amenirdas, Amenirdies, Amenirdis, Amirtaios, Amirteo, Amirto, Amnirdis, Amnrdis, Amonardis, Amonardus, Amonirdas, Amonirdies, Amonirdis, Amounirdies, Amunardis, Amunirdies, Amunirdis, Amyrtaeus, Amyrtaios, Amyrtée, Ancient Egyptian, Aqaluqa, Birth Name, Hat neferu Mut, Hat Nefru Mut, Hat-nfrw-mwt, Hatnefrumut, Hieroglyphs, Imn-Iir-Di-Si, Interpretation, Kushite, Nomen, Nubian, Prenomen, Princess, Princess of Nubia, Royal Name, Royal Queen, Thebes, Third Intermediate Period, Throne, Throne Name, Translations, www.Amenardis.net, www.Amenirdis.net, www.Amunirdis.net, XXV, XXV Dynasty with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on January 30, 2009 by www.Amunirdis.net

Royal Names of Hatnefrumut – Throne Name – Nomen and Modern-Day Translations – Amonirdis

The ancient prenomen (throne name) and nomen (birth name, usually) of AI are clear and not open to much interpretation if read in the original hieroglyphs but our modern-day languages vary so very much that a simple – if Royal – name becomes many multiples and variations of the original.
To make matters even more confusing, Hatnefrumut’s “birth name” was different as she was a Nubian (Kushite) Princess, possibly ‘AkaluKa Princess of Nubia’ or Aqaluqa.

The prenomen of AI is Hat-nfrw-mwt (Hatnefrumut) and her nomen is Imn-iir-di-si which leads many to state that AI’s name (or ‘nomen’) is Amenardis but there are many variations to AI’s nomen – here are just a few:

Amenirdis
Amonardis
Amunirdis
Amunardis
Amonirdis
Amnirdis
Amyrtaios
Amunirdies
Amenirdas
Amonirdas
Amenardus
Amonardus

In Dutch,  AI’s name becomes Amyrtaeus – Amenirdis
In German:  Amyrtaios – Amunirdies
In French:  Amyrtée – Amonirdis
In Italian:  Amirteo – Amonirdis
In Spanish:  Amirteo – Amonirdis
In Portuguese:  Amirtaios – Amonirdies

Of course, this makes research of any kind very difficult as all names must be searched for and the search becomes quite confusing. One might think that the “English” version of Hatnefrumut’s name would be enough… but try searching the major search engines for any of the above – they all result in many pages of information regardless of the modern-day language used.

It is a confusing situation as each name has to be searched for (both offline and online) and even the most prestigious of museums occasionally use multiple names for the same Royal Queen – Hatnefrumut or Imn-iir-di-si.

I am sure that the ancient Egyptians would delight in the fact that their names will never be forgotten – nor should they be but with such a wealth of spellings and pronunciations their names are bound to live forever.
🙂

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