Archive for the Amun Category

Egyptian Women in Power – Shepenwepet, Amenirdis, Nitoqret, Nitocris, Ankhnesneferibre – God’s Wife of Amun

Posted in Adoratrice, Akaluka, Akhamenerau, Amen, Amenardis, Amenirdis, Amenirdis the Elder, Amon, Amonardis, Amonirdis, Amoun, Amun, Amunardis, Amunirdis, Ancient Egypt, Ankhnesneferibre, Assasif, Assyrian, Black Pharaohs, Chief Priestess, Deir el-Bahri, Divine Adoratice of Amun, Divine Adoratrice, Divine Votaress, Divine Wife, Dynastic, Dynasty, Egypt, Egyptian, Egyptian History, Egyptian Queen, Egyptologists, Egyptology, el-Assasif, First Prophet, God, Goddess, Gods Hand, Gods Wife, Gods Wife of Amun, Harwa, Karnak, Karnak Temple, Kashta, King Kashta, Kush, Kushite, Medinet Habu, Memphis, Montuemhet, Napata, Nasalsa, Necho, Nitocris, Nitoqret, Nubian, Nubian Queens, Oracle, Osorkon, Peshuper, Pharaoh, Pharaohs, Piankhi, Pie, Piye, Prenomen, Priest, Princess of Nubia, Psammetichus, Psammetik, Psamtek, Psamtik, Pye, Queen Amenirdis, Queen Amunirdis, Queen of Egypt, Queen Pebatma, Sais, Scribe, Scribe of Amenirdis, Shabaka, Shabaka Neferkare, Shabaka Stone, Shabaqo, Shabitko, Shebitku, Shepenupet, Shepenwepet, Taharqa, Taharqo, Tanis, Tantamani, Temple of Amun, Thebes, Third Intermediate Period, Twenty Fifth Dynasty, Upper Egypt, Uraeus, Wadi Hammamat,,,, XXIII, XXIV, XXV, XXV Dynasty, XXVI, XXVI Dynasty with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on January 28, 2009 by

Egyptian Women in Power – Shepenwepet, Amenirdis, Nitoqret, Nitocris, Ankhnesneferibre – God’s Wife of Amun

“By the 23rd Dynasty, Egypt was under Libyan rule. From the reign of Osorkon III to that of Psammetik III, Thebes was ruled by a succession of five daughters of the ruling royal house who would live in Thebes and give all their attention to the god’s cult. The first was Shepenwepet I, who was appointed Divine Wife by her father, Osorkon II, who received all the estates and property formerly possessed by the High Priest.

She also officiated at the Temple of Osiris. Shepenwepet I continued in power under Osorkon’s successor, Takeloth III, though no mention of the Divine Wife appears in his records and he made no arrangements for a successor.

When at the end of the Third Intermediate Period the rulers of Kush began to extend their authority into Egypt and took power away from the Libyans, Piankh invaded Thebes from Kush to become the first ruler of the 25th Dynasty. He persuaded Shepenwepet I to adopt his sister Amenirdis, as successor. So Amenirdis carried the old title of Divine Adoratrice Apparent.

When Shepenwepet I died, she was buried along with several family members in a vault beneath the floor of her mortuary chapel at Medinet Habu.

Amenirdis I, sister of the general Piankh, reigned as Divine Wife under Piankh, Shabaka, and Shabitko of the 25th Dynasty. She in turned adopted Piankh’s daughter to succeed her as Shepenwepet II. Some years later Shepenwepet II adopted the daughter of Taharqa to reign as Amenirdis II. There is a fragmentary stela that refers to Taharqa having given his daughter to marry the vizier Montuemhat and that they had a son named Nasalsa.

When Amenirdis I died, her niece completed a mortuary chapel at Medinet Habu for her, though nothing now remains in the burial chapel. But her grave goods can be found in museums all over the world.

When the Assyrians first invaded Egypt, they placed a puppet, Necho of Sais, on the throne in the Delta. Taharqa had fled to Kush, leaving behind his wives and children. When Taharqa died, his successor, Tantamani, had a dream promising him Egypt, and marched north, killing Necho of Sais. The Assyrians again marched on Egypt and sacked Thebes. But Shepenwepet II remained in position as Divine Wife of Amun.

From Osorkon III’s time on, the title “Divine Wife of Amun” was that of a daughter of the king who became the consecrated wife of the god, Amun. She was expected to reside in Thebes and probably responsible to make known the will of Amun through oracular means. The Divine Wife held a second title, that of “Hand of the God.”

At this time, political power was held by Montuemhet, a man holding a minor political office. He was only Fourth Prophet of Amun, but also mayor of the city and governor of Upper Egypt. Taharqa had installed Montuemhet in Thebes when he was residing at the royal palace in Tanis in the Delta. After Taharqa fled Egypt, the Assyrians confirmed Montuemhet as vassal, and he boasts of protecting the city of Thebes and conducting ceremonies of purification in the despoiled temples.

Psammetik I became the first ruler of the 26th Dynasty, but was little more than an Assyrian vassal. Psammetik gradually formed an alliance with the rulers in Herakleopolis and was recognized as overlord. When he was recognized as ruler by Thebes, who had still considered the Kushites their king, Egypt was once again unified and could declare itself independent from Assyria. Psammetik appointed his daughter Nitoqret as Divine Wife of Amun.

Other women were still involved in serving in the temple, not just the daughter of the king. The title “singer in the temple of Amun” was held by approximately 100 women from the reigns of Takelot II to the end of the 26th Dynasty. They were most likely retainers of the god’s wives, and some are buried not far from the tomb chapels of the 25th and 26th Dynasties at Medinet Habu.

Shepenwepet II meanwhile, the reigning Divine Wife, already had an adopted daughter, Amenirdis II, to succeed her. Both of them were loyal to Tantamani, the Nubian. But Nitoqret did not arrive in Thebes until some months after Tantamani was already dead.

It has been suggested that Nitoqret was adopted by Amenirdis II, who was Divine Wife Apparent at that time, and not by Shepenwepet II. But possibly, Shepenwepet II adopted Nitoqret, and Amenirdis II returned to Kush.

This adoption of Nitoqret was recorded on a great granite stela at Karnak which tells how she was escorted from the Delta to Thebes in a long procession of boats bearing much dowry. It describes how, in the spring of 655 BCE, Nitoqret and her retinue boarded ships from the Delta and sailed to Thebes.

Montuemhet accepted Nitoqret as Divine Wife, and agreed to allow the king to appoint not only her officials but also the governor and border commander of the area to the south of Thebes. In return Montuemhet was allowed to retain his position as mayor of Thebes. Probably in return for his new loyalty, Montuemhet’s tomb near Deir el-Bahri is magnificent, its large pylon dominating the plain. It has a vast underground complex and enormous sun-court adorned with statues of him.

The God’s Wife now dressed in royal insignia, including the uraeus, was accorded royal titles and even wrote her name in a royal cartouche. She owned about 2000 acres of fertile land in both the Delta and in Upper Egypt.

Rather than administering her own wealth, Nitoqret’s father Psammetik I appointed an overseer who would answer to him. But once the king died, Nitoqret appointed her own men, loyal to her. Nitoqret was given some 2000 acres of land in both Upper and Lower Egypt. Every day, Nitiqret was to receive from the fourth priest of Amun, his eldest son, his wife, and from the first and third priests of Amun, a total of 600 deben of bread, 11 hin (just under half a liter) of milk, 2 1/6 cakes, 2 2/3 bundles of herbs. Monthly she would receive 3 oxen, 5 geese, 20 heben of beer, and the yield of many fields. Various temples gave her 1500 deben of bread. She thus received 2100 deben of bread daily and over 2000 acres in eleven nomes.

Nitoqret reigned for over fifty years, not appointing a successor in all that time. During her time, the Assyrians invaded and Thebes was sacked, the temple robbed of its treasure. But when she was in her eighties, in 594 BCE, she adopted the daughter of Psammetik II, her great niece Ankhnesneferibre. This girl not only took the title of Divine Wife of Amun, she was also given the title of First Prophet or High Priest of Amun, the only woman known to hold this office. Her beautiful stone sarcophagus shows her effigy wearing a queen’s headdress and holding the flail and crook scepters of Egypt.

Eight years later, Nitoqret died. Her funerary inscription bears language very similar to that used by the kings themselves. 

Year 4 of Apries, 4th month of Shomu, day 4, the Divine Wife Nitoqret, justified, was raised up into heaven, being united with the sun’s disk, the divine flesh being merged with him who made it.

She was buried at Medinet Habu. Though her burial chamber was pilfered, her sarcophagus sits in the Cairo Museum.

Ankhnesneferibre could not prevent King Amasis from appointing his own man as her steward. When the King of Persia conquered Egypt, she had reigned for 60 years. When the Persians conquered Egypt, the office of God’s Wife was discontinued and never again resurrected.


  • Position of Women in the Egyptian Hierarchy by Aylward Blackman, JEA 7
  • Daughters of Isis by Joyce Tyldesley
  • Celibacy and Adoption Among God’s Wives of Amun and Singers in Temple of Amun by Emily Teeter
  • Women in Ancient Egypt by Barbara Watterson
  • Women in Ancient Egypt by Gay Robins “



Brooklyn Museum: Dig Diary –

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“An end and a beginning

On March 23, 2007 the Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art opens at the Brooklyn Museum. To celebrate the opening and the accompanying exhibition, “Pharaohs, Queens and Goddesses”, we decided to devote the last posting of the 2007 season at the Mut Precinct to some of the female figures, mortal and divine, associated with the site.

Hatshepsut being crowned by Amun-Re and granted life and dominion by the goddess “Great in Magic”, from the reconstructed Red Chapel in the Karnak Open Air Museum. An early 18th Dynasty temple at Mut dates to the reign of this woman who ruled as king.

“God’s Wife of Amun” was an important female priestly title in Thebes. In the 1st millennium BC it was usually held by a sister or daughter of the reigning king, each God’s Wife adopting her successor. They became so powerful that they were able to have themselves represented in roles normally played by the king.

In scenes of goddesses suckling humans, the human is normally the king, with the scene representing the transfer of life and power. Yet in this scene in the Chapel of Osiris-Ruler-of-Eternity at Karnak, not only is the God’s Wife of Amun, Shepenwepet I, being suckled, she is also wearing 2 Double Crowns, something shown nowhere else in any period.

In her funerary chapel at the temple of Medinet Habu, Amunirdis makes offerings to Amun and Hathor. The presence of funerary chapels to mortals within the sacred grounds of a temple is rare until the Third Intermediate Period, a time when God’s Wives of Amun flourished.

Intangible concepts could also be represented as goddesses. In a scene commemorating an important military campaign by Sheshonq I of Dynasty 22, the goddess “Victorious Thebes”, carrying a mace, an axe and a bow, drags conquered cities (shown as bound prisoners with the city names enclosed in cartouches representing fortified walls) to be slaughtered.

Upper and Lower Egypt were represented as the goddesses Nekhbet (right) and Wadjet. Scenes of the king flanked by these protective deities are common in all periods of Egyptian history. This one comes from the Mut Precinct’s Ptolemaic Chapel D.

Keeping Mut and Sakhmet happy was a main function of the Mut priesthood. In this scene from the Mut Precinct’s main entrance the king (holding Hathor-headed sistra) and two priestesses play music to Mut and Sakhmet to amuse them and keep them contented.

Two busts of Sakhmet in the Mut Precinct. Sakhmet angered could release disease and disaster on Egypt. Contented she could control these forces, which is why she is a goddess of health and healing as well as of death and destruction.

These 3 reliefs of Mut span a period of several hundred years. On the left is a relief from Amunirdis’s funerary chapel at Medinet Habu; in the center a relief from the chapel of Osiris-Ruler-of-Eternity at Karnak; and on the right a relief in Chapel D at the Mut Precinct. In all three scenes Mut appears in her usual guise of a human wearing the Double Crown.

And finally, a stela of a king offering to Mut that we uncovered in 2006. While the stela is uninscribed, it is entirely possible that it dates to the reign of the Roman Emperor Tiberius, showing that Mut continued as an important goddess even after Egypt’s conquest by Rome.

Richard Fazzini
Director, Mut Expedition”

Re: Blogs

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Harwa – Chief Steward of Queen Amenirdis – God’s Wife of Amun and Divine Adoratrice – XXV Dynasty

Posted in Adoratrice, Akaluka, Amenardis, Amenirdis, Amenirdis the Elder, Amun, Amunardis, Amunirdis, Ancient Egypt, Black Pharaohs, Divine Adoratice of Amun, Divine Adoratrice, Divine Votaress, Egyptian Goddess, Egyptian Queen, Egyptology, Goddess, Gods Wife, Gods Wife of Amun, Harwa, Hatnefrumut, Khaneferumut, King Kashta, Kush, Kushite, Napata, Peshuper, Princess of Nubia, Queen of Egypt, Queen Pebatma, Shabaka, Shabaka Neferkare, Shabaqo, Third Intermediate Period,,,, XXV Dynasty, XXVI Dynasty with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on April 22, 2008 by

Harwa was an important man in ancient Egypt. He was an important figure in the life of Amenirdis I of ancient Egypt’s XXV Dynasty. He acted as the ‘Chief Steward’, or ‘Grand Steward’ for Amenirdis I, as God’s Wife of Amun and also whilst Queen Amenirdis served as Divine Adoratrice. Additionally, he held the title (as High Priest) of “Doorkeeper in the Temple of Amun”.

Born in to a family of Theban Priests, Harwa held high office in Thebes (modern-day Luxor) with great responsibility to Amun and God’s Wife of Amun, the Divine Votaress, Amenirdis I. He was son of the “Lady of the House”, Nestaureret, and of a Priest attached to the temple of Amun in Karnak, Padimut son of Ankhefenamon.

His tomb is located in el-Assasif, part of the Theban Necropolis, near to Deir el-Bahri and is known as TT37 (Theban Tomb 37) which has been under archaeological examination for some years and currently not accessible to the public.

The tomb of Harwa (TT37) displays important features of a man holding such religious, spiritual and political power. Scenes and texts – at least those engraved in the principal axis of the monument – can be read as part of a description of the Egyptian man’s journey from his daily life to the Netherworld, passing through the ultimate experience of death and beyond. Each part of the monument concurs to document a different step of the path leading to eternal life.
The tomb (TT37) is large and in the “Osiris Hall” there is a wall relief describing the moment of the death where Harwa is shown ‘between worlds’, and separated from his physical body, with Anubis holding one hand. Harwa then exists in two dimensions – in the Land of Osiris and still in the land of the living, just. Harwa’s tomb shows the moment of death in its supreme glory and Harwa continues to be shown ‘in the middle’, almost in a freeze-frame relief with both his Ka and brain conscious. This is highly unusual in ancient Egyptian scenes.

A text well-engraved on the southern wall of the passage leading to the First Pillared Hall enumerates his good deeds having recourse to the most typical phraseology of the Egyptian “ideal biography”. It is Harwa himself who is speaking.

He tells the visitor to the tomb: “I gave bread to the hungry man, clothes to the naked man”.

This phrase is pivotal in the connection between Harwa and Queen Amenirdis I as, on the reverse (and base) of the famous alabaster statue of Amenirdis I, there is a well-carved series of hieroglyphs which say:

“I gave food to the hungry, drink to the thirsty, clothes to the naked man.”

The full translation can be found here:


I have not seen a connection made anywhere regarding these two series of hieroglyphs – online or offline. I believe that this connection hasn’t yet been made by the scholars but the importance of the similar phrases is amazing to me.

Harwa held the position of “Grand Steward” for about forty years from the time of Piankhy, serving under Nubian pharaohs Shabaqo or Shabaka (713-698 BCE) and Shebitqo (698-690 BCE), until the reign of Taharqo or Taharqa (690 – 664 BCE).

‘Coincidentally’, Amenirdis I is said to have served as God’s Wife of Amun, Divine Adoratrice (or Divine Votaress) and “God’s Hand” for approximately forty years.

[Taharqo (or Taharqa) was the uncle of Amunirdis.]


It is my personal belief that Amenirdis I and Harwa had a close relationship and ruled ‘together’ (under various roles) from ancient Thebes at approximately the same times in ancient Egypt.

During the 1997 archaeological campaign in Harwa’s tomb (TT37), a limestone ushabty (or shabti) was unearthed showing features which shed new light on some aspects of the role played by Harwa inside the Theban administration. It is a typically mummiform funerary statuette of the XXV Dynasty but it holds in his hands the crook and the flail, that is to say, the regalia, the characteristic emblems of the pharaonic royalty.

As far as it is known, it is the only example of non-royal ushabty displaying such a characteristic.

Furthermore, in the Chapter VI of the Book of the Dead engraved on the body, Harwa is mentioned as “Great of the Greats”.

These evidences should point out that Harwa had more power than the one deriving from his role and that he can be considered as the co-governor of the Theban region on the behalf of the Nubian King alongside the Divine Adoratrice, Amunirdis I.

Also the vastness of his tomb and the high number of his statues can support the hypothesis that Harwa was the most politically influential person of the State; stretching to the First Cataract (a graffito signed by him has been found at Nag’esh Sheikh, near Aswan).

If this assumption is confirmed by further excavations, then the positions of Montuemhat and Petamenophis will have to be reconsidered. They chose in fact to place their tombs east and west of the tomb of Harwa as if they attributed a high reverence to him and considered him a sort of ancestor. In this frame one has to ask: is it possible to speak of a “dynasty” of functionaries governing the Theban region with the consent of the Nubian kings? If this proves to be true, then, as they did not belong to the one family nor did they share the same titles and position, what was the mechanism of succession of these functionaries? No-one yet knows the answer to that question or the countless others raised by the life, works and tomb of Harwa, Grand Steward in the Precinct of Amun.


Many questions are raised merely because of the surviving evidence belonging to Amenirdis I and Harwa but there are some issues which are quite clear:


Upper Egypt was ruled well under the governance of these two mighty figures (and others) and for forty years, approximately, Upper Egypt was relatively peaceful (as opposed to the XXIII to XXIV Dynasties political and religious unrest and turmoil) whilst Pharaoh Shabaka (Amunirdis I’s brother) ruled from Memphis. Even after the death of her brother, Amunirdis I remained in control and acted, along with others, as the First Prophet of Amun, answering the State’s needs on many levels. Order was temporarily restored and both Amunirdis I and Harwa played a major role in ancient Egypt at that time.


If you would like to read more about Harwa, please see these web sites:

Harwa: The Man:

Harwa’s Tomb:

Archaeological Seasons at TT37, Harwa’s Tomb:

The Italian Archaeological Mission in Luxor excavating TT37:

Harwa – The Official Egyptological Research Team’s web site

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ – Blog

‘God’s Wife of Amun’ and ‘Divine Adoratrice of Amun’ – Important Women in Ancient Egypt

Posted in Akaluka, Amenardis, Amenirdis, Amenirdis the Elder, Amun, Amunardis, Amunirdis, Ancient Egypt, Black Pharaohs, Divine Adoratice of Amun, Divine Adoratrice, Divine Adoratrice of Amun, Divine Votaress, Egyptian Goddess, Egyptian Queen, Egyptology, Goddess, Gods Wife, Gods Wife of Amun, Harwa, Hatnefrumut, Khaneferumut, King Kashta, Kush, Kushite, Napata, Peshuper, Princess of Nubia, Queen of Egypt, Queen Pebatma, Scribe of Amenirdis, Shabaka, Shabaka Neferkare, Shabaqo, Third Intermediate Period,,,, XXV Dynasty, XXVI Dynasty with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on April 20, 2008 by

God’s Wife of Amun, a title for a similar Office of the High Priestess, originated as a title held by a daughter of the High Priest of Amun during the reign of Hatshepsut and continued as an important Office while the capital of Egypt remained in (or returned to) Thebes, modern-day Luxor and Karnak.


This Office reached the very heights of its political & religious power during the Third Intermediate Period of Egypt when Shepenupet I (Shepenwepet I), Osorkon III’s daughter, was first appointed to this post at Thebes. The Nubian King Kashta, in turn, appointed his daughter, Amenirdis I, as her successor, though it is said by many that Shepenwepet I ‘adopted’ Amenirdis I in to this important role in ancient Egypt, this ‘adoption’ procedure continued throughout the XXV and XXVI Dynasties. The high status of this Office is illustrated by the tomb of Amenirdis I at Medinet Habu and her building work at Karnak Temple.


When the Napatan Kings from Kush started to extend their power into Upper Egypt, the reigning God’s Wife of Amun, Shepenupet I (Shepenwepet I), ‘adopted’ Amenirdis I, the daughter of Pharaoh Kashta as her heir. This sequence was followed throughout the XXV Dynasty until Egypt was conquered by Psamtek I, who had his daughter, Nitocris I, adopted by Amenirdis II. The Adoption Stelae of Nitocris’ shows the ceremony involved by this event, and the prestige of the role:

“I have given to him my daughter to be a god’s wife and have endowed her better than those who were before her. Surely he will be gratified with her worship and protect the land who gave her to him.”


In the Third Intermediate Period, during the XXV and XXVI Dynasties, and the start of the Late Period, the Office was at its height politically, religiously and economically. As the role of the High Priests of Amun changed from a mostly spiritual to a more ‘earthly’ role, the Divine Adoratrice became the primary focus of the cult of Amun in Thebes.

During the XXVI Dynasty, the Saite King Psamtik I (Psammetichus or Psamtek) forcibly reunited Egypt under his rule in 656 BCE and he compelled the God’s Wife of Amun serving at the time, Shepenupet II (Shepenwepet II), daughter of Piye, to ‘adopt’ his daughter as her chosen successor to this position.


God’s Wife of Amun was an incredibly powerful spiritual and religious role in ancient Egypt as was “The Divine Adoratrice” (or ‘Votaress’) – the Queen being responsible for daily rituals and ‘communications’ with God; acting as an intermediary for the High Priests and officials within the Precinct of Amun and also “interpreted the oracles”. Some references still exist as to Amenirdis I’s interpretation of her communications with Amun – some involving members of the ‘public’, quite unusual for a ‘living Goddess’. Amenirdis I seems to have favoured contact with the people of the land of Amun. She was held in high regard and limited records refer to Amenirdis as a “fair and just” ruler in Upper Egypt whilst her brother, Shabaka (‘Shabaka Neferkare’ or Shabaqo), ruled as Pharaoh in Memphis in the north (Lower Egypt). Shabaka was also the originator of the famous ‘Shabaka Stone’, a fruitful source of insight into the culture and religious doctrines of the ancient Egyptians.


In ancient Egyptian history, there were in total thirty Royal women who held the title “God’s Wife of Amun” though there is some doubt regarding Tashakheper – daughter of Osorkon II who may have ruled as God’s Wife of Amun during the reign of Takelot III. If Tashakheper had indeed ruled as God’s Wife of Amun, this would bring the entire Dynastic figure to thirty-one. [NB: this does not include non-Royals from Dynasty X to the XII Dynasty]


Probably the most ‘well known’ of all God’s Wives is Hatshepsut who also held the title Divine Adoratrice of Amun.


The Divine Adoratrice of Amun (or the ‘Divine Votaress’) was a second title (in addition to God’s Wife of Amun) created for the Chief Priestess of the ancient Egyptian omnipotent deity, Amun.
The Divine Adoratrice ruled over the extensive Temple duties and domains, controlling a significant part of the ancient Egyptian economy and religious/spiritual matters primarily from the Precinct of Amun at Karnak and Luxor Temples.

Amenirdis I had notable staff in Office – I will write more about these later but they include Peshuper – ‘Scribe of Amenirdis’ & Harwa – “Steward of the Divine Votaress”.


‘God’s Wife of Amun’ and ‘Divine Adoratrice of Amun’

Under the above two titles there were, in total, six women during the XXV and XXVI Dynasties. They are, in order of rule:


Shepenupet I – 754 – 714 BCE

Amenirdis I – 740 – 720 BCE  prenomen: Khaneferumut

Shepenupet II – 710 – 650 BCE

Amenirdis II – 670 – 640 BCE

Nitocris I – 656 – 586 BCE

Ankhnesneferibre – 595 – 525 BCE

[Dates are, in my opinion, not an exact reflection of the rule of God’s Wife of Amun & Divine Adoratrice: Amenirdis I was said to have reigned for approximately forty years]

Alabaster Statue of Queen Amenirdis I – Prenomen: Khaneferumut or Hatnefrumut

Posted in Akaluka, Amenardis, Amenirdis, Amenirdis the Elder, Amun, Amunardis, Amunirdis, Ancient Egypt, Black Pharaohs, Cairo Museum of Antiquities, Divine Adoratice of Amun, Divine Votaress, Egyptian Goddess, Egyptian Queen, Egyptology, Gods Wife, Gods Wife of Amun, Hatnefrumut, Khaneferumut, King Kashta, Kush, Kushite, Napata, Princess of Nubia, Queen of Egypt, Queen Pebatma,,,, XXV Dynasty with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on April 20, 2008 by

This alabaster statue of Amenirdis I (prenomen: Khaneferumut or Hatnefrumut) is probably the most famous image of this Kushite Queen – it inspired Verdi to compose Aida.
The statue is stunning when seen in real life. For many years it was on display in the Cairo Museum of Antiquities but since the ‘Black Pharaohs’ exhibition the alabaster statue has been moved for more of the public to see this magnificent depiction of an amazing Queen of ancient Egypt.

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Posted in Amenardis, Amenirdis, Amun, Amunardis, Amunirdis, Ancient Egypt, Egyptology, Gods Wife, Kush, Kushite, Napata,,,, XXV Dynasty with tags on April 19, 2008 by

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